Wild lettuce (Launaea taraxacifolia) is grown mostly in West Africa, it is call “Efo Yarin” in Yoruba Language of Nigeria. This plant is commonly used as leafy. Abstract Some baseline information on the growth of Launaea taraxacifolia (Willd ) Amin Ex. C Jeffrey was gathered. Rhizomes sprouted within 10 days. African Lettuce (Launaea taraxacifolia) Displays Possible Anticancer Effects and Herb-Drug Interaction Potential by CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 Inhibition.
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Jeffrey is a herb found mostly in tropical Africa. The plant, commonly found in West Africa, is used in the management of many diseases including cardiovascular, respiratory, haematological, endocrine, and metabolic diseases in Ghana, Nigeria, Benin, Serra Leone, and Senegal.
This piece provides comprehensive alunaea updated information on the traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological and toxicological information available on Launaea taraxacifolia to support its medicinal uses and also unearth knowledge gaps for future studies.
An electronic literature search using search engines, namely, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and PubMed, was carried out to obtain information on the plant. Both common and scientific names of the plant were used as keywords for the search process. This paper captured information on Launaea taraxacifolia from to Launwea, isolated phytoconstituents taraxacifolai well as the safety profile of the plant have been documented.
This review on Launaea taraxacifolia has provided a one-stop documentation of information in support of the several purported ethnopharmacological uses of the plant. It also reveals information gaps such as the need to research into its pharmacokinetics, interactions with drugs of importance, and its development into a plant-based drug in order to expand launea clinical use.
Launaea taraxacifolia (Willd.) Amin ex y
Launaea taraxacifolia Asteraceaealso known as wild lettuce, is found mainly in tropical Africa. The plant over the years has been reported to possess many ethnopharmacological properties on disease conditions such as water retention disorders, conjunctivitis, yaws, improper ,aunaea fixation in infants, and diabetes mellitus [ 1 — 3 ].
The report added tarasacifolia, in Africa and the Western World, the use of traditional medicine is on the rise. Despite the increase in patronage of traditional medicines, evidence-based scientific data on plants used as medicines are rather scattered. This emphasizes the need to collate relevant scientific and evidence-based information available to support the medicinal uses of some of these plant medicines to aid further research.
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Currently no topical review exists on Launaea taraxacifoliathus necessitating the need to gather data available on the plant.
This systematic review aimed to provide a comprehensive and updated information on the botanical aspects, ethnopharmacological uses, nutritional, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and toxicological assessment of extracts of Launaea taraxacifolia leaves to explore its therapeutic potential and evaluate future research prospects.
The search approach is illustrated in a flow diagram Figure 1. The article selection was initially based on the following inclusion criteria: Articles that were retrieved were manually reviewed with the goal of identifying and excluding works that did not fit the inclusion criteria described, articles with repeated data, and duplication by the search engines. Launaea taraxacifolia belongs to the domain Eukaryota, kingdom Plantae, and subkingdom Viridae Plantae. It is found in the Family Asteraceae or Compositae.
It is of the genus Launaea and species taraxacifolia [ 5 ]. Table 1 contains various ethnic names by which the plant is called in different dialects in West Africa. Synonyms of the plant names include Lactuca taraxacifolia Willd. The plant has several medicinal uses Table 2. Its ethnomedicinal popularity has necessitated the various biological activities of the plant to be documented in numerous scientific research publications.
Launaea taraxacifolia is a tropical perennial plant that has a creeping root system, launada its leaves at the base of an erect stem, which is about m high. The leaves are arranged in a rosette form of and may sometimes be crowned with golden yellow corollas, which produces nm air-borne seeds.
Launaea taraxacifolia is unique. It is the only species in the Asteraceae family without any trichome. The leaf, stem, and nodes are potential explants for regeneration of Launaea taraxacifolia [ 6 — 10 ].
A picture of the leaves with flowers is shown in Figure 2. The plant is predominant in tropical African countries of Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Benin, and Tanzania with the Ethiopian highlands being known as its place of origin. It thrives at banks of water bodies, waste dumping places, and backyards [ 1112 ]. The leaf of the plant is consumed by indigenes of Benin, Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and other tropical countries [ 1113 — 15 ]. It may be eaten as salads, cooked as sauces, and eaten as vegetable soup regularly during pregnancy.
The plant, which forms a rich part of the African diet, is endowed with high levels of nutrients. The leaves have been reported to contain substantial amounts of macro- and micronutrients that can compare well with other conventional edible leaves. The most abundant chemical components found were palmitic acid, methyloctadecenoate, erythritol, glycerol, linolelaidic acid methyl ester, and phytol. A long chain alcohol, 1-hexacosanol, has also been discovered to be present in the leaves [ 23 ].
Some structures of compounds isolated from the leaves of Launaea taraxacifolia are shown on Figure 3. Research over the years has revealed that Launaea taraxacifolia possesses important pharmacological activities.
Table 3 provides an overview of reported experimental based evidence to support pharmacologic and toxicological activities of Launaea taraxacifolia. Reactive oxygen species ROS and Reactive Nitrogen Species Taraxacicolia are free radicals generated by the body from normal physiological activities in body systems as well as exposure to conditions such as radiations, drugs, and taraxcaifolia.
Free radicals may alter the generic structure of endogenous lipids, proteins, DNA, and other important molecules that may lead to tissue damage, triggering many diseases in that regard. The body ameliorates the effect of free radicals by synthesizing endogenous molecules, which mop up these radicals [ 37 ].
Studies tarsxacifolia demonstrated that Launaea taraxacifolia leaf extract has antioxidant power to protect against oxidative stress.
A study conducted by Koukoui et al. Studies conducted by Ololade et al. These activities were reported to be significant lqunaea to the high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids detected in the leaves.
Lipid peroxidation is oxidative damage, which is normally initiated by the attack of free radicals in cellular oxidative stress. Phospholipids, lipoproteins, and other lipid-containing molecules are normally prone to peroxidation. It results in the formation of aldehydes, ketones, alkanes, carboxylic acids, and polymerization products.
Malondialdehyde MDAan example of such reactive aldehydes, is used as a marker to determine lipid peroxidation. It forms a coloured complex with thiobarbituric acid TBA.
This principle has been used in studies conducted by Adinortey et al.
This would imply that Launaea taraxacifolia could be considered as a potential launaex for managing lipid peroxidation during cellular oxidative stress. Steatosis is a clinical condition characterized by abnormal retention of lipids within a cell due to impairment of normal synthesis and degradation of fats. This abnormal lipid accumulation is often seen in individuals with obesity, hepatitis C, etc. Launaea taraxacifolia leaves have been documented to have hypolipidaemic effects [ 28 ]. The investigators showed that lipid accumulation induced with 0.
An in vivo study with Wistar rats also showed that Launaea taraxacifolia significantly decreased blood cholesterol and triglycerides levels significantly [ 28 ]. Metals and metallic compounds interfere with functions of the central nervous [ 25 ]. Histological and biochemical studies reveal that Launaea taraxacifolia displays brain protective effects against lead acetate and mercuric chloride induced oxidative stress.
The metals also altered the microanatomy of the rat regio III cornu ammonis and cerebellum when compared with the control. In the quest to eliminate malignant cells, contemporary medicine and therapies aimed at controlling cancerous cells have yielded undesirable side effects. The need for natural alternative medicines has thus been desirable. Taraaxcifolia effect of L. Their study showed that L.
Cisplatin is a platinum complexed drug that is clinically used as an adjuvant of cancers and is aimed at annihilating tumor cells. Documented side effects of this platinum complex include kidney and neuronal damage, hearing loss, and bone marrow suppression [ 39 — 41 ].
Aqueous extract of L. A study on hepatorenal histological toxicities induced by cisplatin in rats showed that L. Dose-dependent ameliorations of these histopathologies were seen in L. Launaae alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and bilirubin and renal blood urea nitrogen, creatinine parameters, which are markers of organ injury were elevated in cisplatin-exposed groups but with less severity in rats cotreated with L.
Increased lipid peroxidation and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and catalase were also observed in cisplatin-exposed groups.
These effects were ameliorated with L. This report suggests that extract of L. Micronuclei are markers that provide information about the integrity of chromosome structure during nuclear division. Pretreatment of rats with L. This suggests that aqueous extract of the plant protects against cisplatin-induced damage. Launaea taraxacifolia has been reported to be used as an antimalarial agent [ 114 ]. The antiplasmodial value of L. The methanolic extract of L.
The bactericidal potential of Launaea taraxacifolia was investigated by Ololade et al. Tayman and colleagues showed that three compounds isolated from L. Their results were confirmed by Ololade et al. Implicitly there is evidence to support the fact that Launaea taraxacifolia is a potential inhibitor of both gram positive and gram negative bacteria.
Electrophoresis has been used as a tool by researchers to determine distortions in native conformational structure of genetic materials such as DNA, RNA, and proteins. Adinortey and colleagues in [ 24 ] demonstrated that Launaea taraxacifolia leaf extract has DNA protective ability. In the study, it was observed that electrophoretic mobility was a function of DNA conformational structure. Using the UV-H 2 O 2 model, the investigators showed that structurally damaged DNA without protection from Launaea taraxacifolia leaf extract had the slowest mobility on the gel compared to native supercoiled circular DNA.
Cellular DNA damage had been associated with action of free radicals. UV-photolysis of H 2 O 2 produces OH – radical which is responsible for damage of genetic materials as suggested by Guha et al. The result of this study suggests that Launaea taraxacifolia confers protection on DNA against OH – radical induced by radiation and allows less distortion in the DNA structure upon irradiation.
Antiarthritic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities.